Published Date: 2022-05-25 19:00:24 BST
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Foot & mouth disease - Indonesia (07): cattle, FMDV O/ME-SA/Ind-2001e, vaccine
Archive Number: 20220525.8703456
FOOT & MOUTH DISEASE - INDONESIA (07): CATTLE, FMDV O/ME-SA/IND-2001E, VACCINE
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Date: Wed 18 May 2022
Source: Defra (UK Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs) [abridged, edited]
Defra preliminary outbreak assessment. ref: VITT/1200 FMD in South-East Asia
The 1st suspected outbreaks of FMD [in Indonesia] occurred in cattle on village premises in the northern and western suburbs of Surabaya, and the disease was reported on 28 Apr 2022, with further cases reported on 1 May and 3 May [OIE, 2022]. This was the 1st report to OIE of FMD in the region, although it is endemic in neighbouring countries in mainland South-East Asia [e.g., Malaysia; see Fig 1 at the source URL above].
Initial clinical cases were diagnosed as bovine ephemeral fever and were treated unsuccessfully before further disease spread and mortalities were observed, so it is suspected that FMD could have been spreading in cattle on Java since mid-April [OIE, 2022]. Surabaya is the 2nd-largest city in Indonesia. The diagnosis was reported to the OIE on 9 May [OIE, 2022]. FMD viral sequence data has been exchanged with the OIE and FAO World Reference Laboratory for Foot-and-Mouth Disease in the United Kingdom (Pirbright Institute), confirming the presence of serotype O (O/ME-SA/Ind-2001e lineage).
As of 11 May 2022, cattle in 4 districts of the East Java province (Java) and 2 districts in Aceh province (Sumatra) have been affected by FMD. There are reports of 79 outbreaks in East Java and one in Aceh. The distance between the 2 affected regions is approximately 2100 km (1300 miles). The source of the outbreak is suspected to be illegal imports of live animals. In addition, the emergence of FMD has coincided with annual large movements of people and animals in Indonesia during the Lebaran holiday period, which may be a concern for the onward spread of the disease. There have also been media reports of FMD outbreaks in West Kalimantan on the island of Borneo.
Data from the Indonesian Ministry stated that over 2200 animals have been affected in Aceh, with one death as of 11 May 2022, and 3200 animals have been affected in East Java with a 1.5% death rate. Targeted slaughter will form part of the control strategy, but vaccination will be the main control measure taken. A task force has been established to control cattle movements in affected areas, and to distribute veterinary medicines, including imported FMD vaccines. Since the virus has been identified as being serotype O, the manufacture of a vaccine in Indonesia is underway and discussions are also underway to explore opportunities to import vaccines from international suppliers. The annual population of cattle in Indonesia across all islands is estimated to be 18 million, the population of goats is over 19 million, and the population of pigs is estimated at 9 million (Statista 2020).
UK trade partners in the region, such as Australia, will be concerned about FMD reports in a neighbouring country, particularly considering the large volumes of Australian tourists that visit parts of Indonesia, such as Bali, who could bring infectious fomites into the country. The Australian government has suspended import permits for some animal products from Indonesia and is providing financial assistance to Indonesia for the identification and purchase of a suitable FMD vaccine, as well as technical assistance.
Dr Sonny Bacigalupo
Dr Don King
Dr Lauren Perrin
ProMED Rapporteur Mahmoud Orabi
[Subscribers are encouraged to visit the full assessment at the source URL above, including references dated as recent as 20 May 2022. It includes 2 maps presenting the regional FMD as well as the global situation:
Fig 1. Map of OIE FMD country status and OIE reports of FMD in South-East Asia between June 2021 and May 2022.
Fig 2. Map showing  endemic pools of FMD [globally], where FMD virus genotypes circulate independently, correct as of May 2022. - Mod.AS]
Date: Mon 23 May 2022 06:36 a.m. EDT
Source: MarketScreener, Reuters report [edited]
Indonesia's government reported on Monday [23 May 2022] more than 20 000 livestock had been infected by foot-and-mouth disease [FMD] in 16 provinces, as lawmakers urged authorities to find the source of the virus and ramp up efforts to prevent further spread.
The infections have spread since the Agriculture Ministry reported cases in 2 provinces less than 2 weeks ago. Local media reported around 1600 animals were infected in East Java and 1200 in Aceh province at the time.
Agriculture Minister Syahrul Yasin Limpo told a parliamentary hearing on Monday [23 May 2022] that 20 723 head of livestock had been infected in 16 provinces as of last week. He said these provinces had a total livestock population of around 13.8 million.
Lawmakers at the hearing urged the government to investigate where the infection originated from, slamming authorities for being "careless" in letting the virus spread across the country for the 1st time since around the late 1980s.
The infections have spread at a time when Indonesia was already facing rising prices of meat and ahead of Eid al-Adha [9-13 Jul 2022], one of the most important Islamic holidays, where Muslims traditionally slaughter animals and share the meat with the poor.
Lawmaker Anggia Erma Rini said vaccines were urgently needed to tackle the outbreak.
Limpo said the government was importing vaccines but preferred to use Indonesian-developed doses that should be ready within a few months.
Authorities in affected areas are also setting up barriers between city borders to prevent the spread into other regions, Limpo said.
"We are being fully supported by the police," he said, regarding the border controls.
Another lawmaker, Dedi Mulyadi, criticised the lack of sanitation control at some local animal markets.
[Byline: Fransiska Nangoy]
ProMED Rapporteur Mahmoud Orabi
Date: Mon 23 May 2022
Source: Antara News [abridged, edited]
The production of vaccines against the FMD in livestock is expected to be completed before August this year  and will be followed by a mass vaccination program, the agriculture minister has confirmed.
"God willing that at present, the Agriculture Ministry's Veterinary Pharmacy Center is currently conceiving the FMD vaccine that is expected to be complete in 4 months, or before August 2022," Minister Syahrul Yasin Limpo said during a hearing meeting with Commission IV of the House of Representatives (DPR RI) here on Monday [23 May 2022].
The Veterinary Pharmacy Center has identified the virus serotype that has caused the FMD outbreak in Indonesia as the O/ME-SA/Ind-2001e variant, which is often found in Southeast Asia, he informed.
Based on the virus serotype, the authority will produce vaccines from domestic sources to fulfill the demand for the mass vaccination of livestock against the disease, the minister said.
Around 13 965 heads of livestock have been confirmed to be infected with FMD through a laboratory PCR test.
Of the infected livestock, about 2630 (18.83%) heads of livestock have recovered, while another 99 livestock have succumbed to the infection.
The minister clarified that FMD does not transmit to humans, and the meat of infected livestock can still be consumed safely as long as they are slaughtered by observing strict health protocols and the infected organ is destroyed.
ProMED Rapporteur Mahmoud Orabi
Date: Mon 23 May 2022 18:49 WIB
Source: VOI [abridged, edited]
Minister of Agriculture Syahrul Yasin Limpo said that if the handling of the FMD [foot-and-mouth disease] outbreak was not carried out properly, new problems would arise. One of them is to provide a loss to the state of IDR 9.9 trillion [about USD 676.4 billion] per year.
Syahrul explained that the loss occurred due to a decrease in production, livestock deaths, and the prohibition or restriction on the export of livestock products and their derivatives. Moreover, he said, the transmission of FMD is quite fast. Therefore, this issue needs to be watched out for.
[According to Indonesia's Ministry of Agriculture, the FMD virus causing the widely spread event is serotype O, topotype ME-SA, lineage Ind-2001, sublineage e. This sublineage has been identified by the WRLFMD, since 2015, in Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Kazakhstan, Korea (South), Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia (Orenburg), Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Viet Nam. The most recent common ancestor of the O/ME-SA/Ind-2001 sublineages d and e was predicted to have existed within the Indian subcontinent between 2006 and 2008 (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-32693-8#citeas).
Recorded in 16 provinces within 2 weeks following its initial notification and in locations which are more than 1000 km [621 mi] apart, this panzootic FMDV strain seems to have been circulating in Indonesia longer; how long, and from where, remains to be established. To stop the further spread within Indonesia and beyond, in particular challenging Australasia, mass vaccinations with a matching vaccine covering susceptible species (predominantly cattle and buffalos, preferably also sheep, goats, and pigs) must be launched in non-yet-infected areas as soon as possible. The vaccination is essential much earlier than the point in time when a locally produced, homologous, tested vaccine becomes available. For this end, considerable quantities of a matching vaccine must be sought elsewhere.
The following background and other documents have been compiled by ProMED Rapporteur Mahmoud Orabi:
- Vaccine strain of O/ME-SA/Ind-2001e of FMD virus provides high immunogenicity and broad antigenic coverage (S. Korea): https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32828822/
- Identification of the O/ME-SA/Ind-2001e sublineage of foot-and-mouth disease virus in Cambodia: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8586198/
- Emergence of an exotic strain of serotype O FMD virus O/ME-SA/Ind-2001d in South-East Asia in 2015: https://doc.oie.int/dyn/portal/digidoc.xhtml?statelessToken=qPI5Sy8MqkMws0OfZRfViN3QZBGI0BM2MekWkXmC8ws=&actionMethod=dyn%2Fportal%2Fdigidoc.xhtml%3AdownloadAttachment.openStateless
- Study traces FMDV escape from Indian subcontinent: https://www.cabi.org/vetmedresource/news/65430
- Evolutionary dynamics of FMD virus O/ME-SA/Ind2001 lineage: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/26049591
- Reconstructing the evolutionary history of pandemic FMD viruses: the impact of recombination within the emerging O/ME-SA/Ind-2001 lineage: https://europepmc.org/article/PMC/6168464
- FMD global situation: Understanding regional risks and priorities to control outbreaks, OIE/FAO/Pirbright Institute: https://rr-asia.oie.int/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/wrl_global-fmd-situation_dk.pdf