Published Date: 2022-08-18 00:10:36 BST
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Foot & mouth disease - South Africa (06): cattle, st SAT 3, spread, control, RFI
Archive Number: 20220817.8705081
FOOT & MOUTH DISEASE - SOUTH AFRICA (06): CATTLE, SEROTYPE 3, SPREAD, CONTROL, REQUEST FOR INFORMATION
A ProMED-mail post http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases http://www.isid.org
Date: Tue 16 Aug 2022
Source: Food for Mzansi [edited]
The Minister of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development, Ms. Thoko Didiza, MP has taken the decision to suspend all movement of cattle in the whole country. The minister's decision is aimed at halting the continued spread of foot-and-mouth disease [FMD] in the country. It also means that cattle may not be moved from one property to another for any reason for a period of 21 days, reviewable weekly.
Departmental spokesperson Reggie Ngcobo confirmed to Food for Mzansi that the decision will be gazetted [published in the government gazette] today (Tue 16 Aug 2022).
According to the Agricultural Produce Agents council (Apac), the ban on cattle movement is expected to last for 28 days.
This will bar anyone from moving cattle for trading, lobola [marriage payment], or exhibition purposes. Cattle will only be allowed to be transported to registered abattoirs for slaughter.
The ban is currently only applicable to cattle and excludes smaller cloven-hoofed species like sheep, goats, and pigs.
In a statement released by Wildlife Ranching SA (WRSA) last night [15 Aug 2022], it also confirmed to its members that game in auction bomas [enclosures] will not be affected for now, as buffalo movements are carefully monitored, and animals are tested for FMD before movement.
Role players emphasise, however, that all movements of all cloven-hoofed animals should be undertaken with caution.
"It is crucially important that biosecurity measures, including deep disinfection with a disinfectant approved to be effective against FMD, such as ACT LA, should be observed when the movement of animals into areas with other animals do take place," says WRSA. "Most new FMD outbreaks are being caused by mechanical transmission through inanimate objects."
ProMED Rapporteur Mahmoud Orabi
Date: Tue 16 Aug 2022
Source: Times Live [edited]
As foot-and-mouth disease [FMD] spreads, Minister of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development Thoko Didiza has banned all movement of cattle throughout SA. Any disregard for the movement ban is a criminal offence.
Didiza's decision is to halt cattle movement from one property to another for any reason for a period of 21 days, reviewable weekly.
On Tuesday [16 Aug 2022] the department reported 116 outbreaks of FMD in farms, feedlots, and communal areas in KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, the North West, Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and the Free State.
The minister acknowledged the efforts of farmers, communities, and industries "to curb illegal movements of animals from known positive areas, and to improve biosecurity on animal holdings."
"However, the disease continues to spread, with 15 new properties and 2 new provinces affected in the last 2 weeks alone."
The ban will be declared in the Government Gazette.
"Cattle that are already at shows, auctions, and en route into the republic will be given 48 hours to be permitted to move to a final destination after being sold. The local state veterinary office should be contacted for these permits," Didiza said.
She warned that perpetrators moving cattle illegally will be prosecuted for contravention of the Animal Diseases Act. The department said the exception will only be upon veterinary permit for cattle for direct slaughter at registered abattoirs and slaughter for ritual purposes.
According to the ministry statement, "The minister recognises the major disruption that the movement ban will cause in the normal business of many sectors. For this reason, the ban is only applicable to cattle, as the movement of cattle was identified as the main cause of the continued spread of the outbreaks.
"However, the public is reminded that all cloven-hoofed animals can spread the FMD virus, and the movement of sheep, goats, pigs, and cloven-hoofed game animals should also be handled with the necessary caution."
It said animals showing suspicious clinical symptoms -- including salivation, blisters in the mouth, limping, or hoof lesions -- must not be moved under any circumstances. In this case, members of the public are encouraged to contact their district state veterinary services or their private veterinarians immediately.
[Byline: Alex Patrick]
ProMED Rapporteur Mahmoud Orabi
[The current, ongoing FMD event started, according to SA's official reporting, on 2 Mar 2022 on a farm in Ventersdorp, district municipality Kenneth Kaunda, province North West (map at https://tinyurl.com/2p9a7bjb). The outbreak was reported to WOAH on 21 Mar 2022 (see ProMED post 20220323.8702168). Since then, the virus has spread widely, currently circulating throughout 6 provinces, as detailed in item 2 above. The total number of SA's provinces is 9.
The recent follow-up report no. 12, dated 12 Aug 2022, includes information on 37 new outbreaks: 19 in Free State, 14 in North West, 3 in Gauteng, and 1 in Mpumalanga. According to the information presented, the total number of cases, all in cattle, since the start of the event in early March  is 3291 (out of 142 355 susceptible animals). No deaths, no cullings, 130 animals slaughtered, and no vaccinations. The report, with a map presenting the locations of the addressed outbreaks, is available at https://wahis.woah.org/#/report-info?reportId=58571. The following note was included: "Typing of the virus indicated that this is a SAT-3 serotype, rather than a SAT-2 as originally reported. The serotype of this event was changed from SAT-2 to SAT-3 in the report FUR_154909."
A semi "standstill" policy which addresses only cattle, excluding other FMD-susceptible animal species, without culling of infected and in-contact animals and, apparently, without using vaccines is a remarkable step which will be followed with great interest. Information on the infectivity rate of the virus strain involved, in cattle and other species, may have been consulted prior to such decision. In case available, such data will be much appreciated.
The ongoing FMD outbreak has once again put the spotlight on the importance of a national livestock identification and traceability system in South Africa, which is essential for effective FMD prevention and control. Such a system is conditional for regaining SA's FMD-free status. The process of rolling out the system at a national level began in 2017 when the then Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) published a draft document on a livestock identification and traceability system for South Africa (LITS-SA). The policy proposal was based on the standards of the World Organization for Animal Health and provided for the establishment of the LITS-SA committee to develop the system. The committee, which consists of 5 representatives from the department and 5 from the red meat industry, is also responsible for the legislative component of the system. Even if the entire database is in place, the system cannot be made compulsory prior to legislation being approved.
For additional information, see https://agriorbit.com/spotlight-on-lits-sa-where-do-we-stand-and-how-will-it-work/ and https://nahf.co.za/guiding-document-cattle-movement-ban-foot-and-mouth-disease-outbreak-16-august-2022/. - Mod.AS
ProMED map of South Africa: https://promedmail.org/promed-post?place=8705081,179]