Published Date: 2023-01-24 11:31:00 GMT
Subject: PRO/AH> Foot & mouth disease - Jordan (04): (MA) susp, livestock, control, trade
Archive Number: 20230124.8707940
FOOT & MOUTH DISEASE - JORDAN (04): (MAFRAQ) SUSPECTED, LIVESTOCK, CONTROL, TRADE
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Date: Mon 23 Jan 2023
Source: Al-Waqa'i/News Facts (Jordan) [in Arabic, machine trans., edited]
The director of Mafraq Agriculture, Dr Ibtihal Al-Khraisha, said that foot-and-mouth disease [FMD], which affects livestock, is an endemic disease in all countries of the region, including Jordan, explaining that the word "endemic" means that it occurs within a certain percentage annually, and what reduces this percentage is the application of vaccine. The vaccine either reduces infection, relieves symptoms, or prevents spread.
She said in a statement that, according to publications of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO] and the World Organization for Animal Health [WOAH], the FMD vaccine applied is considered effective if the protection rate it confers is 75%. This means that even when the vaccine is used, there will be a considerable number of infections. Its rate/percentage varies according to the virus type.
She stated that the vaccine needs 21 days after vaccination to work. That is, any infection before that may cause the disease, because the period required for immunity to occur has not been completed.
The minister of agriculture, Khaled Al-Hanifat, confirmed a few weeks ago that sheep exports witnessed an increase that reached 570 000 head during 2022, compared with 2021, when it reached 430 000. This number is evidence of the importers' confidence in the national livestock product.
It is noteworthy that the Ministry of Agriculture launched a livestock vaccination campaign several months ago. According to the plan, the 2nd dose will be injected after 4 months. This is meant to reduce FMD infection among the Kingdom of Jordan's livestock while preserving the reputation of Jordan's animal products, in particular livestock.
[The governorate of Mafraq maintains about 790 000 (26%) of Jordan's some 3 million sheep, and about 14 000 (18%) of about 78 000 cattle. It may be assumed that the above report is related to FMD suspected or confirmed in animals there that are supposed to be immune. However, no official report of outbreaks is yet available. Previous recent information addressed outbreaks in the Zarka governorate. The recent diagnosis of FMD on Israel's Golan, adjacent to north west Jordan, may be indicative of a wider spread.
Though regarded endemic in Jordan, there is evidence that exotic FMD virus strains are introduced from time to time; there is a considerable trade of imported sheep and cattle for fattening and further export.
FMD presents a clear seasonality in the Eastern Mediterranean. The virus often starts its circulation in November, peaking during the early months of the subsequent year. Though the clinical disease in sheep is mostly mild, their offspring suffers high to very high mortality rates. Outbreaks during the months of July to October are rather rare; the dynamics of this seasonal pattern are yet to be clarified.
Jordan's livestock population includes (2020 data) a total of about 78 000 cattle, 3.1 million sheep, and 800 000 goats.
According to WOAH's WAHID data for 2020 (the most recent available information), FMD vaccination figures were the following:
Period / cattle / sheep / goat
Jan-Jun / 60 260 / 257 680 / 106 719
Jul-Dec / 68 715 / 629 864 / 69 252
The vaccination rates, particularly in reference to the 3.1 million strong sheep population, are not sufficient to confer satisfactory protection. The higher number of vaccinated sheep during the 2nd semester was probably due to primary vaccinations in lambs.
Between late 2021 and spring 2022, Jordan suffered a considerable FMD epizootic caused by FMD virus O/ME-SA/PanAsia-2/ANT-10. The virus, assumed to have been introduced by imported animals, spread westward to the territories of the Palestinian authority (PA) and Israel. Since late December 2022, the same FMD virus strain has renewed its circulation in the 3 territories.
Notably, Jordan has improved its diagnostic capacities. The 2021/2022 and the current outbreaks have been rapidly diagnosed, including genotyping, by the Kingdom's national veterinary laboratory in Irbid. Selection and application of matching vaccines, and improvement of the vaccination rates, are essential to protect Jordan's reputation as an exporter of live animals and their products (such as the sheep-cheese types nabulsi, akkawi, and jibni).
An official notification of the current event, including details of its diagnosis and vaccination coverage, are anticipated. - Mod.AS
ProMED map of Mafraq Governorate, Jordan: https://promedmail.org/promed-post?place=8707940,12991.]