Published Date: 2023-01-31 11:16:12 GMT
Subject: PRO/AH> Foot & mouth disease - Jordan (05): (AZ) livestock, vaccine study
Archive Number: 20230131.8708068
FOOT & MOUTH DISEASE - JORDAN (05): (ZARQA) LIVESTOCK, VACCINE STUDY
A ProMED-mail post http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases http://www.isid.org
Date: Sun 29 Jan 2023
Source: Al-Mamlaka TV News [in Arabic, machine trans., edited]
According to a press release issued by the Ministry of Agriculture, 1478 cows were infected with foot and mouth disease [FMD] in 56 farms, out of 14 456 cows in farms, where there are 92 000 cows in Jordan.
The ministry reported on Sunday [29 Jan 2023] the number of farms that have recorded infections with FMD since the beginning of the outbreak at the end of last year . About 56 farms were officially reported infected, according to the integrated electronic system for monitoring animal diseases.
It showed that the number of cows infected with FMD is not classified within the outbreak stage and is within the global natural proportions, as the survey campaign confirmed that no infection of sheep with FMD was recorded. [The ministry] emphasized that all cows infected with FMD are in farms in the Al-Dulail area only.
Within the framework of the vigorous follow-up made by the Ministry of Agriculture to follow up on outbreaks of FMD, efforts have been continued to send epidemiological investigation teams and follow-up to visit infected farms, monitor the development of the epidemiological situation, and collect serum and tissue samples and send them for examination in livestock laboratories.
The percentage of immunization of farms infected with the disease varies, as well as the sources of vaccine used by breeders, as 4 vaccines related to the disease were registered with the ministry after completing the technical requirements for the registration of scientific files.
One of them was provided, subject to fulfilment of the terms of award of the government procurement bid. A total of 4 million doses of vaccine were provided, and more than 4 million heads of sheep, goats, and cows were vaccinated through the 1st national campaign for immunization against FMD, which was implemented by the ministry during the last quarter of 2022 within the programs and projects of the National Plan for Sustainable Agriculture in order to immunize livestock and raise the level of veterinary services provided.
The ministry carried out the field immunological study for assessing the level of acquired immunity after using the vaccine, through the formation of a technical committee whose membership included specialists from the College of Veterinary Medicine, the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations), the directorate of Veterinary and Animal Health, and the directorate of Livestock Laboratories. The study was carried out under standard conditions in the livestock stations owned by the ministry.
Serum samples were sent to evaluate the immunological effect of the vaccine in international reference laboratories, at a time when the results of immunological examinations that were carried out in livestock laboratories indicate the emergence of immune bodies when examining samples after the 28th day of the examination. However, test results must be obtained from the reference laboratory for approval.
The ministry has taken a number of measures related to reducing the chances of transmission of infection between farms by postponing the licensing of farms in the association, raising awareness about the application of biosecurity measures in the region, and suspending the import of straw and hay from neighboring countries that have recorded infections with the disease.
The ministry affirmed that the situation is not classified within the stage of an outbreak and within the global natural ratios, stressing that there will be no impact on the quantities of milk and therefore on their prices due to the abundance of milk production that is sufficient and exceeds the needs of the local market. The ministry is taking all appropriate measures to deal with injuries and has full readiness to deal with it.
[The ministry] also confirmed that the campaign was targeting sheep, [in] which its surveys confirmed no record of infection, in addition to the fact that no infection was recorded in cow farms outside the Al Dhelil area. In addition, the vaccine is within the 1st stage, and the ministry intends to give the 2nd dose next April  to ensure the creation of a state of immunity for the herds.
The ministry called for accuracy when circulating news and reports about the development of the epidemiological situation of FMD due to its economic impact, in addition to the reputation of the local product, especially since the disease does not pose any danger to humans.
[Jordan has about 700 dairy cattle farms, 60% of which are located in the Al Dhulail (Dhlail, ad-Dulayl, Al Dulayl, Dlayl) area in the western part of the Zarqa governorate, about 30 km [about 19 mi] north east of Amman; see map at https://tinyurl.com/2wre38my. Year-round protection of all dairy cattle is essential to safeguard the Kingdom's fresh milk supply and the dairy industry at large.
FMD in (unvaccinated/unprotected) cattle is characterised by distinct clinical signs, high morbidity rates, and -- particularly in dairy cattle -- severe commercial losses, though mortality rates are mostly limited to 5%. Recovery is protracted.
Decisions on absence of FMD infection in sheep may be challenged by the fact that adult sheep often undergo FMD infection subclinically. However, high and very high mortality rates may be seen in young lambs, characterised by sudden deaths without other observable clinical signs. Therefore, if an FMD event takes place during the lambing season, economical losses to sheep owners may be dramatic.
On top of losses to cattle and sheep/goat owners, FMD may cause significant losses to traders of live animals and their products, intra- and internationally, due to the banning of imports from FMD-infected countries, prescribed in international animal health requirements.
The availability of (potent and matching) FMD vaccines, and their timely periodic and wide application in domestic ruminants, are essential to prevent the described losses.
Between late 2021 and spring 2022, Jordan suffered a considerable FMD epizootic caused by FMD virus O/ME-SA/PanAsia-2/ANT-10. This strain, which seems to have resumed its circulation recently, was assumed to have been introduced by imported animals. It has become, late 2021, subject to matching trials by the World Reference Laboratory for FMD at Pirbright. The trials addressed 6 commercially available FMD-O vaccines from 3 manufacturers, matched against 2 field isolates collected from cattle in 2021. For each field isolate, the r1-value is shown followed by the heterologous neutralization titer (r1-value, HNT):
Vaccine strain [manufacturer] // O Jor/10/2021 // O Jor/6/2021
O1 Campos [manufacturer 1] // 0.22, 1.85 // 0.17, 1.73
O-3039 [manufacturer 2] // 0.37, 1.53 // 0.38, 1.54
O1 Campos [manufacturer 2] // 0.18, 2.09 // 0.25, 2.24
O Manisa [manufacturer 2] // 0.11, 1.61 // 0.19, 1.82
O 5911 PanAsia 2 [manufacturer 2] // 0.23, 1.84 // 0.30, 1.95
O/TUR/5/09 [manufacturer 3] // 0.35, 1.92 // 0.56, 2.12
The highest neutralization titers in this series were obtained with FMDV O1 Campos, a South American field isolate (1958). The WRL report is available at https://www.wrlfmd.org/sites/world/files/quick_media/WRLFMD-2021-00017-JOR-VMR-S-O_001.pdf.
In 2022, WRL performed vaccine-matching tests with 6 vaccines against the O/ME-SA/PanAsia-2/ANT-10 virus strain collected from infected animals in Israel during a 2022 event. Summarized data from the WRL report are presented in the commentary of ProMED post 20230110.8707716. Following the WRL matching tests, field serological trials were carried out in Israel during the 2nd semester of 2022, comparing the rate of protection rendered by 2 vaccines of international manufacturers. The combined information has been reviewed by an expert panel. The participants suggested that animal challenge trials are conditional to obtain a reliable evaluation of vaccine efficacy.
The final results of Jordan's and Israel's field and laboratory studies deserve to be subject to evaluation and discussion by their respective and international experts for the benefit of the region and beyond. - Mod.AS
ProMED map of Zarqa Governorate, Jordan: https://promedmail.org/promed-post?place=8708068,25335.]