Published Date: 2023-01-10 15:31:32 GMT
Subject: PRO/AH> Foot & mouth disease - Jordan: (AZ) cattle, susp, RFI
Archive Number: 20230110.8707716
FOOT & MOUTH DISEASE - JORDAN: (ZARQA) CATTLE, SUSPECTED, REQUEST FOR INFORMATION
A ProMED-mail post http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases http://www.isid.org
Date: Mon 9 Jan 2023
Source: Al-Ghad [in Arabic, machine trans., edited]
Cattle breeders in the Al-Dulail area revealed an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease [FMD] among their herds despite receiving vaccinations approved by the Ministry of Agriculture.
In a statement obtained by Al-Ghad, the breeders called on the concerned authorities to open an investigation to find out the reasons for the increase in infections among their herds despite receiving the vaccinations. They made it clear that the cows that received vaccinations from the private sector did not contract the disease, unlike those that received the vaccine approved by the Ministry of Agriculture.
The breeders pointed out that the spread of FMD has led to heavy losses, as the disease causes the cessation of milk production, due to increased body temperature of the cows and sloughing of their tongue epithelium, in addition to the need to use large quantities of medicines. They noted that vaccinations are considered one of the strategic options for the state, according to their statement.
For his part, the Assistant Secretary-General for Livestock at the Ministry of Agriculture, Ali Abu Nuqta, denied the existence of any outbreak of "foot-and-mouth disease" among Al-Dulail cows. Abu Nuqta said in a press statement yesterday [8 Jan 2023] that the infections with this disease "were limited to a number of farms, which did not exceed 5," stressing that a number of them were vaccinated through the private sector and others through the ministry.
He pointed out that this disease does not pose any danger to humans and does not cause the death of animals, but is limited to a decrease in the daily productivity of cows, due to the high temperature during the infection period.
He affirmed the Ministry's full readiness to deal with these cases of fever, as the Ministry sent samples to the laboratories of the University of Science and Technology to determine the "strains" that cows were exposed to in light of the availability of all vaccines, noting that the Ministry applies the procedures for veterinary quarantine and health security and all other precautionary measures.
[Byline: Abdullah Al-Rabeihat]
ProMED Rapporteur Mahmoud Orabi
[The Al-Dulail [Ad-Dulayl] area is located in the western part of Jordan's Zarqa governorate, about 40 km (about 25 mi) east of the Jordan river. Even if just a few of the allegedly vaccinated cattle are clinically affected, they attest to a circulation of an FMD field virus. Its sero- and genotype are, reportedly, being investigated by Jordan's University of Science and Technology in Irbid. This University's Veterinary College Research Laboratory identified in Dec 2021 the FMD strain which caused the 2021/2022 FMD event in Jordan. The virus was FMDV O, topotype ME-SA, lineage PanAsia 2, sublineage ANT-10 (see archive 20211229.8700556).
As reported in the said posting, complaints about FMD killing sheep came in December 2021 from sheep breeders in 3 locations, including Ad-Dulayl. They "pointed out that no vaccines were available in the agricultural directorates to vaccinate livestock."
The 2021/2022 event started near Amman in November 2021, likely introduced by imported cattle. The disease spread to Irbid province, adjacent to the Jordan River, from where it entered the territory of the Palestinian Authority (PA), reportedly on 12 Dec 2021, spreading widely during 2022. In February 2022, FMD was recorded in Israel, causing a wide-scale epizootic (92 outbreaks, assumed as resolved in September 2022). Samples from both territories were found, by a local and an international reference laboratory, to be identical to the Jordanian O/ME-SA/PanAsia2/ANT-10 strain.
In Israel, several outbreaks involved farms that were known to have undergone vaccination. This led to checking the efficacy of the vaccine used.
Two field isolates from Israeli cattle (O ISR/5/2022, O ISR/9/2022) have undergone vaccine matching tests at WRLFMD (World Reference Laboratory for Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Pirbright laboratory), completed on 13 Jul 2022. The tests included 6 commercially available FMD-O vaccines, from 3 producers. They are included in a report, available at https://www.wrlfmd.org/sites/world/files/quick_media/WRLFMD-2022-000011-ISR-VMR-O-O_001.pdf, of which a summarizing table follows.
For each field isolate, the r1-value is shown followed by the heterologous neutralisation titre (r1-value, titre).
Vaccine strain, manufacturer// O ISR/5/2022 // O ISR/9/2022
O1 Campos, Biogénesis Bagó// 0.42, 2.37 // 0.58, 2.51
O-3039, Boehringer Ingelheim// 0.48, 1.69 // 0.57, 1.76
O Campos, Boehringer Ingelheim// 0.18, 1.78 // 0.25, 1.92
O Manisa, Boehringer Ingelheim// 0.33, 1.97 // 0.33, 1.97
O Panasia 2, Boehringer Ingelheim// 0.32, 2.09 // 0.39, 2.18
O/TUR/5/09, MSD Animal Health// 0.57, 2.18 // 0.54, 2.16
While 5 of the 6 tested vaccines presented r1 greater than 0.3, which suggests that "there is a close antigenic relationship between field isolate and the vaccine strain," surprisingly, the South-American O1 Campos strain presented the highest neutralisation index. In this respect, subscribers are referred to observations from Egypt, addressing the emergence of FMD virus, serotype O, Europe-South America topotype, in Egypt, during 2022 (https://doi.org/10.1111/tbed.14612).
Following the WRL matching tests, field serological trials were carried out in Israel during the 2nd semester of 2022, comparing the rate of protection rendered by 2 vaccines of international manufacturers. The combined information has recently been reviewed by an expert panel. The participants suggested that animal challenge trials are conditional to obtain a reliable evaluation of vaccine efficacy.
The O/ME-SA/PanAsia2/ANT-10 strain has been identified in 2 outbreaks in beef cattle, grazing on the Golan heights, during the 1st week of 2023 (map at https://tinyurl.com/4ctm7ssm). It will be interesting to compare the causative pathogen to the strain currently being tested at Irbid University, the results of which are anticipated. Collaboration in combatting infectious animal diseases, within a common ecological niche, is essential for the sake of the region and beyond. It may require the involvement of international agencies. - Mod.AS
Zarqa Governorate, Jordan: https://promedmail.org/promed-post?place=8707716,25335]