Published Date: 2023-02-06 21:38:42 GMT
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Foot & mouth disease - Israel (02): st SAT-2, preventive measures, alert
Archive Number: 20230206.8708207
FOOT & MOUTH DISEASE - ISRAEL (02): SEROTYPE SAT-2, PREVENTIVE MEASURES, ALERT
A ProMED-mail post http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases http://www.isid.org
Date: Sun 5 Feb 2023
Source: Min Ag, VSAH (Veterinary Services & Animal health), Circular [in Hebrew, trans. Mod.AS, edited]
1. Last January , an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease [FMD] virus serotype SAT2 was reported in Iraq. At the same time, FMD serotype O was reported from Jordan.
2. During January , severe FMD outbreaks, affecting vaccinated herds, were reported from Jordan by several websites. Despite the vaccination, adult animals presented severe clinical disease and death of vaccinated adult cattle was reported as well. The clinical picture is suspicious for the penetration of an exotic virus strain that is not included in the bivalent (serotype O and A) vaccine used in Jordan. Samples sent to the reference world laboratory, Pirbright, await final confirmation before publication.
3. Currently, the outbreaks are reported from the Al-Dalil area in the Al-Zarqa province, but the spread to other locations cannot be ruled out.
4. The SAT2 strain is not included in the FMD commercial vaccine used in Israel; the livestock in your possession is not protected against it. The veterinary services in Israel maintain an emergency frozen SAT2 vaccine but its quantity is very limited. Attempts are being undertaken to check the availability of a suitable vaccine in the required quantity.
5. Therefore, maintaining the required biosafety is of extreme importance to prevent penetration of the disease into Israel's livestock sector.
6. You are required to update all concerned, including drivers and users of vehicles who enter the facilities and premises under your reponsibility, about the situation and the consequent limitations, by way of clear and prominent signage at the entrance to facilities and public areas.
7. Below are biological safety rules required to minimize the risk [exhaustive; omitted from this posting, available at the source url. - Mod.AS].
[The above circular has been distributed to the regional veterinary offices, practitioners, farmers' organisations and other stakeholders, and appears on the website of the Ministry of Agriculture accessible to the public.
According to yet-to-be-officially-published information, the SAT-2 virus strain circulating in Iraq and Jordan is topotype XIV, closely related to SAT-2 strains ETH/3/2022 and ETH/2/2022.
Commercially-available FMD SAT-2 vaccines, 'Eritrea 98' and 'SAT2 Zim 83', have been matched, by WRLFMD, against the field virus ETH/2/2022, topotype XIV. The results are presented on page 23 of 'FMD Quarterly Report 4, Oct-Dec 2022', as follows:
1. Eritrea 98 vaccine: r1 0.81, HN titre 1.62
2. SAT2 Zim 83 vaccine: r1 0.54, HN titre 2.17
The r1 values represent the one-way serological match between vaccine strain and field isolate, calculated from the comparative reactivity of antisera. The br1 value should be at least 0.3 or higher, suggesting that there is a close antigenic relationship between field isolate and vaccine strain. A potent vaccine containing the vaccine strain is likely to confer protection. Heterologous Neutralisation (HN) titres for vaccine sera with the field isolates are an indicator of cross-protection.
For the said quarterly issue, see https://www.wrlfmd.org/sites/world/files/quick_media/WOAH-FAO%20FMD%20Ref%20Lab%20Report%20Oct-Dec%202022.pdf.
Emergency FMD SAT vaccines have been produced, throughout the years, in some countries by their own laboratories. In 2012, Egyptian laboratories produced a significant quantity of SAT-2 vaccine for local use (20120718.1206369, 20120714.1201987). - Mod.AS