Published Date: 2023-03-11 18:04:42 GMT
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Foot & mouth disease - Turkey (02): livestock, st SAT-2, WOAH, RFI
Archive Number: 20230311.8708881
FOOT & MOUTH DISEASE - TURKEY (02): LIVESTOCK, SEROTYPE SAT-2, WOAH, REQUEST FOR INFORMATION
A ProMED-mail post http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases http://www.isid.org
WOAH immediate notification
Date: Fri 10 Mar 2023
Source: WOAH-WAHIS (World Animal Health Information System) 2023 [edited]
Turkey - Foot-and-mouth disease virus
Report type: Immediate notification
Started: 3 Mar 2023
Confirmed: 8 Mar 2023
Reported: 10 Mar 2023
Reason for notification: New strain in the country
Causal agent: Foot-and-mouth disease virus
Serotype: SAT 2
Nature of diagnosis: Clinical, laboratory
This event pertains to a defined zone within the country.
Outbreak location: Asagimahalle, Tuzluca, Igdir
Started: 3 Mar 2023
Epidemiological unit: Village [cluster]
Total animals affected:
Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Killed and disposed of / Slaughtered or killed for commercial use / Vaccinated
Cattle / 1849 / 4 / 0 / 0 / 0 / 0
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection: Introduction of new live animals
Epidemiological comments: FMD symptoms were observed by animal keeper in a cattle newly taken to the farm in the village. Afterward, mouth lesions were detected in a total of 4 cattle in the clinical examination performed by the official veterinarian. All susceptible animals within a 3-km (1.86 mi) radius are being vaccinated.
Control measures at event level
Control measures applied, domestic: Quarantine, traceability, surveillance outside the restricted zone, vaccination in response to the outbreak(s), movement control, disinfection
Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type / Species / Test / Test date / Result
FMD Institute / Cattle / Antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) / 8 Mar 2023 / Positive
[The location of the outbreak can be seen on the interactive map at https://wahis.woah.org/#/in-review/4959.]
[1. The comment about "FMD symptoms observed in a cattle newly taken to the farm in the village" is in need of clarification. Is there available information about the origin of the introduced animals? A farm, herd or animal market within Turkey, or transboundary route? Tuzluca is situated 6 km (3.7 mi) from the Aras River, separating Turkey from Armenia; 80 km (~50 mi) from the Iranian border; 310 km (~193 mi) from the Iraqi border (Erbil governorate); and about 400 km (~249 mi) from Gogjaly in Iraq's Mosul governorate, reported by Iraq on 26 Jan 2023 as the site of its primary outbreak of FMD SAT-2, which had started on 3 Jan 2023 (map at https://tinyurl.com/3wr67cvs).
2. The above immediate notification (IN) describes a single outbreak. A media report presenting Turkey's Ministry of Agriculture announcement, published on 9 Mar 2023, included the following cited text: "provincial and district livestock markets are closed down until further notice due to foot-and-mouth disease seen in animals throughout Turkey. All animal markets are now closed due to foot-and-mouth disease in various provinces." Also: "all measures, including quarantine, have been taken in 8 enterprises with FMD" (see ProMED post 20230310.8708855).
On 11 Mar 2023, Anka News Agency (Istanbul) informed that the provinces Samsun, Denizli, Diyarbakır, and Siirt have also closed their animal markets and forbidden the introduction and exit of cattle and small ruminants.
A follow-up report (FUR) is expected to clarify the discrepancy between the information on one outbreak in Igdir, presented in the IN, and the Ministry's alarming information, indicating a wide spread of FMD SAT-2 in Turkey. - Mod.AS]
Date: Fri 10 Mar 2023
Source: Turkey Posts English [edited]
A foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) alarm has been issued in Turkey. After the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry announced that the 1st case carrying the SAT-2 serotype FMD was detected, the news started to come one after another.
In Tunceli, it was reported that the entrance and exit of animals to the city were prohibited within the scope of FMD measures. In the statement made by the Provincial Directorate of Agriculture and Forestry, it was stated that the "SAT-2 strain" of the FMD virus spread rapidly throughout the country. In this context, it was stated that various measures were taken: "In our province, animal movements in and out of the province (except for slaughter, import and export) are prohibited until further notice."
In Afyonkarahisar, while animal shipments in and out of the province were stopped, it was reported that the teams of the Provincial Directorate of Agriculture and Forestry and the district directorates will vaccinate cattle and small ruminants [sheep and goats] against FMD. While only animals that will go to the slaughterhouse are allowed to be shipped, it was warned that those who do not comply with the prohibitions will be fined 46 159 TL (USD 2432).
After the 1st case of FMD was detected, 8 enterprises were quarantined. In the statement made by the Ministry [of Agriculture], the following was included: "Upon the emergence of developments related to FMD in Iraq, within the framework of the Sample Sending and Testing Protocol under the coordination of the European Union Commission for Combating Foot and Mouth Disease (EuFMD), samples from different locations were sent to our FMD Institute Directorate, under our Ministry, for examination.
"Our institute determined that a sample included FMD virus serotype SAT-2, which had not been found in our country before. The virus was isolated, and studies were immediately started for the production of a vaccine against this serotype in our country. All stakeholders, as well as our Provincial Directorates, were warned about the issue. In order to prevent the spread of the disease to our country, our Ministry immediately contacted the relevant institutions and provided the necessary information on increasing border surveillance and road control activities. As a result of meticulous work in the field, the 1st case with SAT-2 serotype FMD has been identified.
"All measures, including cordon-quarantine, have been taken in 8 enterprises that are currently infected. On 8 Mar 2023, the necessary notification was made to the World Animal Health Organization [WOAH; item 1 above]. As a result of the studies carried out by our Institute Directorate, a vaccine against the SAT-2 serotype was produced and become ready for use as of 9 Mar 2023.
"All measures to prevent the spread of the disease were taken by the National Center for Disease Control, which convened upon these developments, and all animal movements (in and out of the province) susceptible to FMD were stopped throughout the country during the spring FMD vaccination campaign, except for the dispatches made for slaughter, import and export purposes. All developments regarding FMD, serotype SAT-2 are closely followed by our Ministry from the 1st moment and all necessary precautions are being taken. Our Ministry, which has completed the production of vaccine against this serotype, which is seen for the 1st time in our country, is rapidly carrying out the necessary studies to vaccinate our entire cattle stock."
[The official WOAH report mentions a village in Tuzluca as the only site currently affected. Two additional provinces are mentioned in the above media report: Tunceli, situated more than 400 km (~249 mi) west of Igdir, and Afyonkarahisar, often shortened to Afyon Province, within the Aegean region in western Turkey, nearly 700 km (~435 mi) west of Tunceli and 1000 km (~621 mi) west of Igdir. In both, severe preventive control measures have been reportedly undertaken, but no information on actual disease is included. Such epidemiological information is essential. In case the virus already circulates in Afyon, this reflects a long-distance leap of the virus westward, threatening further spread to Thrace.
A province map of Turkey is available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provinces_of_Turkey.
According to Iraq's immediate notification of 26 Jan 2023 to WOAH about its primary FMD outbreak in the Ninawa governorate, which had started on 3 Jan 2023, pathological samples "were sent to Sap Institute/Turkiye" (ProMED post 20230128.8708022). Receiving these samples during an early stage of the event may have helped the Turkish laboratory to initiate the preparation of a master seed virus and rapidly move to the production of the 1st vaccine batch.
The European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (EuFMD), one of FAO's oldest Commissions, inaugurated in 1954, has played a significant role in reducing the risk of FMD in Europe and beyond. Maintaining the buffer zone in Eastern Thrace has been one of its 1st achievements. The EU has not had an outbreak of FMD case since 2011. It's hoped the vaccine produced in Turkey from the current strain passes its safety and efficacy tests successfully, presents high immunogenicity and becomes available regionally. - Mod.AS