Published Date: 2021-11-16 12:10:55 GMT
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Foot & mouth disease - China: (QH) yak, st O, OIE
Archive Number: 20211116.8699693
FOOT & MOUTH DISEASE - CHINA: (QINGHAI) YAK, SEROTYPE O, OIE
A ProMED-mail post http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases http://www.isid.org
Date: Thu 11 Nov 2021
Source: OIE WAHID (World Animal Health Information Database), weekly disease information 2021 [edited]
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (Inf. with), China (People's Rep. of)
Report type: immediate notification
Started: 27 Oct 2021
Confirmed: 31 Oct 2021
Reported: 8 Nov 2021
Reason for notification: recurrence
Last occurrence: 20 Dec 2020
Causal agent: Foot-and-mouth disease virus
Nature of diagnosis: clinical, laboratory
This event pertains to a determined zone of the country.
Summary of outbreaks
Total outbreaks (1)
Outbreak location: Ningxiu Township, Zekog, Huangnan Tibetan, Qinghai
Date of start of the outbreak: 27 Oct 2021
Epidemiological unit: farm
Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Killed and disposed of / Slaughtered or killed for commercial use / Vaccinated
Yak (grunting ox) (_Bos grunniens_): Bovidae-Artiodactyla / 41 / 41 / 0 / 41 / - / -
Affected population: this is the 1st occurrence in yaks (_Bos grunniens_) of foot-and-mouth disease in the country.
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection: introduction of new live animals.
Control measures at event level
Domestic control measures applied: disinfection; movement control inside the country; official destruction of animal products; official disposal of carcasses, by-products, and waste; quarantine; screening; stamping out; traceability; zoning
Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type: Qinghai Provincial Animal Disease Control Center (local laboratory)
Species / Outbreaks / Test / Tested from / Result
Yak / 1 / real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) / 31 Oct 2021 / positive
[The location of the outbreak can be seen on the interactive map included in the OIE report at the source URL above.]
[FMD is endemic in China, historically, the following FMDV serotypes have been identified:
FMDV serotype / Year
O / 1958, 1986, 1999-2001, 2003, 2005, 2010-2014, 2016-2018
A / 1951, 1958, 1960, 1962, 1964, 2009-2010, 2013-2015, 2017-2018
Asia / 1 1958, 2005-2009
This current report mentions that "this is the 1st occurrence in yaks (_Bos grunniens_) of foot-and-mouth disease in the country." However, in November 2007, Qinghai Province veterinary agencies reported that yaks on a farm developed Asia type-1 FMD on 24 Oct 2007. The farm had a total of 58 yaks and 19 fell ill. FMD of the Asia-1 type was confirmed by the National FMD Reference Laboratory. See ProMED post 20071103.3569. Yaks, like all cloven-foot animals, are susceptible to FMD.
The following information is from Ayalew W, Chu M, Liang C, et al. Adaptation mechanisms of yak (_Bos grunniens_) to high-altitude environmental stress. Animals (Basel). 2021; 11(8): 2344; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8388626/
"The yaks are the world's most remarkable domestic animal living freely and reproducing under the harsh plateau environment. The yak was domesticated >7300 years ago from wild yak by the early nomadic people and is the only large animal that coexists with its wild ancestors in a similar environment. Over 17.6 million yaks exist globally, and the majority are found in the plateau regions of central Asia, which cover ~2.5 million km2 centered around the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and adjacent highlands. The yak supplies (milk, meat, hair, hides, and manure) and services (draft, packing, and riding) the pastoralists and agro-pastoralists occupying these areas. They are also means of financial security and cultural functions (status, dowry, religious festivals). They also offer a good framework for studying the effects of natural and artificial selection in livestock domestication and adaptation to different environments.
"The yak is the only bovine species native to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and adjacent highlands that exhibits a high adaptability to high altitudes, a low sensitivity to cold, a low oxygen pressure, and prolonged periods (approximately half a year) of food scarcity."
HealthMap/ProMED map of Qinghai Province, China: https://promedmail.org/promed-post?place=8699693,346]